ARCHEO ETHNO PARK  RAVNA

Archeo-ethno park is located in the village of Ravna eight miles north from  Knjaževac, on the south-eastern slopes of Tupižnica. Park is located in the courtyard of the old village school, which was built in 1906.

The selection of this village for the accommodation of ethno-archaeological park was influenced by the proximity of the site of ancient settlements-Timacum Minus.

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Archeo – ethno parkThe first studies are dating back to 1899 (Antun von Premerstein and Nikola Vulić), while more recently are starting in 1975 under the auspices of the Archaeological Institute in Belgrade and the Homeland Museum of Knjaževac.

Dozens of copies of Roman monuments, characterized by descriptions which carry (altar, imperial honorary inscriptions, tombstones etc.), as well as numerous examples of ancient bronze and marble sculptures, reliefs and other objects of high artistic and handicraft values ​​were found during these systematized scientific – research papers, but also during agricultural works of the local population.

One part of this rich collection is preserved today in museums in Belgrade, Nis, Zajecar and Knjazevac.  Institute for Protection of Cultural Monuments in Nis takes care about conservation and restoration.

Preserved descriptions and plans show that the dominant position occupied fortress with high, well-preserved walls and towers. In the immediate vicinity  the village developed with facilities for habitation, villas, temples, spas …

In the school yard there are copies of houses from Gornja Kamenica and Berčinovac with economic buildings, which illustrate  patriarchal community of the XIX century.

TIMACUM MINUS

Timacum Minus (Ravna, Kuline or Gradište) represents  a Roman settlement whose foundations date back to the first century AD and remain later, lasting until Justinian’s imperial restoration in the sixth century (although there is evidence that this military unit of Roman legionnaires stayed here even  before).

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Timacum Minus

The site is located near the village of Ravna, north of Knjazevac at the the level of the left bank of the Timok on the southeastern slopes of the mountain Tupižnica.

Timacum Minus includes several parts. The dominant position  occupied fortress with high, well-preserved walls and towers. In the immediate vicinity  the village developed. The fortress was used as a camp of the Roman auxiliary units – cohorts and received from 500 to 1,000 soldiers, pedestrians and horsemen.

The occurrence was reconstructed and parts were built upon several times what can be seen on the walls . First, soil fortification was built probably at the end of I century AD. The second, from solid materials – stone, in the middle of II century AD, a fundamental revamp  experienced during the fourth century, while the definite forms it got at the time of Justinian’s restoration.

There is a specific reconstruction from the IV century by marble monuments (often with carved inscriptions) and blocks of sandstone many of whom are from nearby necropolis and temples, apparently collected fastly and built into by  unclear circumstances.

Thermae originate from the II century AD and are restated in the IV century. They are based on a system of the small pillars which kept the floor  and between them circulated warm air from furnaces and equally warmed the rooms. The entrance is located on the east side and served as a dressing room, and they had even lukewarm heated room and two strongly heated rooms with one furnace and cold bathroom with a small swimming pool. They were a favorite meeting place for soldiers.

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CHURCH OF HOLY MOTHER OF GOD

Church of the Holy Mother of God is located in the village of Donja Kamenica, 15 kilometers southeast of Knjaževac.

It is the Foundation of an unknown nobleman and dates from the first half of the 14th century. This church represents the most original and the most valuable artistic monument of the Timok Eparchy.

Foundation of the church is in the shape of an inscribed cross. It is vaulted by barrel vault, and its dome is resting on pendentives.

On the western side there is a narthex with a floor whose lateral parts are surmounted by towers.

 

Architecture is a combination of Romanesque, Gothic and Moravian architecture. The frescoes of the church are of a great value,stylistically and iconographically.

Some of the frescoes are unique in the Serbian medieval painting.

It is believed that the paintings had two masters, a special treasures are the patrons’ compositions and portraits of nobility with a wealth of details in the presentation of their vestments.

Exceptional artistic value have frescos „The Last Supper“, „The Annunciation“, „The Virgin Hodegetria with Christ“, „Dormition of the Virgin“ and unique performances of embracing the Holy Warrior Theodore Tyron and Theodore Stratelates on horseback, as well as the cycles of the life of St. Petka.

The archaeological researchs which followed  conservation works from 1979 to 1981, confirmed the existence ofnecropolis with 70 graves around the church.

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MONASTERY OF HOLY TRINITY

The  Monastery of The Holy Trinity is located 17 kilometers southeast from Knjaževac, between Donja and Gornja Kamenica.

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Monastery of Holy Trinity

The church is the foundation of the ruler Lazar, the youngest son of  Djuradj Brankovic as evidenced by the inscription in the plaster, which is known from the transcript  which was made by abbot Panteleimon.

The church interior was painted, but the original murals was completely destroyed.  Only a few fragments of frescoes are visible in the dome and the narthex ( “Judgement”), belonging to the renewal of the first half of XIX century.

Besides this church there was a smaller necropolis. The monastery is still active as afemale monastery.

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PREHISTORIC DRAWINGS

The oldest site that testifies to the homeland of the human community in the municipality of Knjaževac is located in the village of Gabrovnica, and it is a prehistoric drawing.

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Prehistoric drawing in Gabrovnica.

On the wall of a small cave there are concluded five shows painted in black  colour – horse and rider, in two places in the cave, a horse with a dagger, a vicious circle and a very “unreadable” show.

The manner of presentation is rather schematic and linear, and it is interesting that the rider is disproportionately small compared to the horse.

All performances are painted in black like soot, which came with a limestone base and can not be removed. In the drawings of  horseman color is less  preserved.

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DEBELICA MILL

The mill, which is privately owned, was built from 1924 to 1926, according to the project of the Czech company Jos. Prokop Synove from Pardubica, which ordered Nikola Bozinovic  who was already engaged in milling.

Debelički mlin

Debelica Debelica mill, built on the approach to the village, surrounded by warehouses and residential buildings, has the style and characteristics of the construction of industrial buildings from the time of development of the industry and is one of the oldest industrial objects in the municipality of Knjaževac.

Machines in the mill are original, a complex system of pipes, which is made of wood, machines for sieving, measurement and transport, function  nowdays, except the fact that mechanical parts (rotor), which was driven by the water  now is powered by electricity.

Old and authentic product line for grinding grain of multifloor Debelica mill consists of machines and mechanical assemblies of the

renowned Czech manufacturer of machinery for the milling industry.

It is one of the few that is functional and originally preserved here, it is unique and as such has undeniable significance for the history ofengineering  and its use in the territory of our country.

The special value of the elements which form  the production process of Debelica mill in addition to authenticity and functionality, makes permanent work till these days.

The mill complex contents  more storage facilities, such as three houses from 1929, 1931 and 1933 that belonged to Nikola’s sons, which are urban type with elements in the spirit of academicism and secession.

Other facilities within the complex (economic facilities within the houses) are in the spirit of folk architecture.

Decision of the Government of Serbia made that  mill was declared  as a cultural monument.

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